You talking about the thickness of the glass, ring diameter/thickness? There is actually a school of thought that says that it futile to use a filter to "protect" the front lens element. Whilst I think that is true for hard knocks (i.e. dropping a lens from height), it still helps prevents smudging etc. from your fingers and scratches.
So to answer (what I think is) your question, no amount of glass thickness will help if you smash your lens against a railing, and you will probably sacrifice image quality with a thicker filter.