Macro lenses have much shorter minimum (i.e. closest) focus distance and hence can shoot very close to the subject and have higher magnification (such as 1:1) of the subject as appeared in the frame. Also Macro lenses are designed to have less aberrations (distortion) when shooting at very short distance from the subject.
Tele lenses, with higher minimum focus distance, can't focus if you're shooting very close to the subject.
focusing distance is the distant to your subject, e.g. infinity, whereas focal length is a physical property of the optical system of the lens. you can google or checkout wikipedia for everything you ever wanted to know about focal length and optical systems! 200mm refers to the focal length of the lens.
what's so amazing? :think: are you confusing focal length and focusing distance?
besides, "short" distance is not an absolute term. for a macro lens, "short" is simply shorter than normal lens, but is still longer than the focal length (not that it means anything). e.g. the Canon EF 100mm Macro has a minimum focusing distance of 310mm.