Vancouver is a great city and I would suggest u spend some time walking around. Each neighbourhood got its distinctive identity. A must for reportage photographers.
My favourite place in Vancouver is Granville Island. It used to be some factory and now is an attractive island with bustling shops, art galleries and leisurely promenades.
I would recommend you travel east towards Banff and Calgary. I am sure you can find information about Banff national park on the web. A must for landscape photographers. The journey there is terrific. Drive if you can or else take a Greyhound Bus and enjoy the scenery.
You should travel to Butchart Garden in Victoria and take a city tour to see their Empress Hotel (It looks like a castle). Maligne Lake (take the boat ride), Mt Edith Cavel (tour bus cannot go up, it is very winding), Angel Glacier, Athabasca falls, Columbia Icefield in Jasper. Must go is Lake Moraine (on top of Lake Louise - nothing much to see in Lake Louise) & Petyo Lake in Banff. I do not know whether the above destinations are open for Winter Season.
In Vancover you can go to Capilano Suspension bridge, the market place, Metrotown (large shopping centre-need to take a skytrain) & Richmond shopping centre. In Vancover I think you can buy some sort of day ticket for about 8 canadian dollars for multiple public transport for the day. Check this out from their post office.