Off the top of my head, some video drivers in XFree86 has a gamma function:
startx -- -gamma XXX
which is gamma correction. Not exactly color management though.
To adjust gamma dynamically you can use xgamma (included in most distributions) by the command
xgamma -gamma XXX (alternatively you can add this command to ~/.xsession instead of the startup command)
I don't know of any color correction program for linux, which is why, thankfully, I have a dual boot to windows to run photoshop. A quick search on google revealed a page which describes using Picture Window Pro under WINE and getting color management by using the windows version (Dual Boot I suppose) I have no experience with this but fyi: http://www.salgarelli.com/technical/ldd/editing.php
I doubt such a thing exists, and unless you are a really serious graphics person, I don't see the point.
A adjust the screen till it 'looks right'.
Linux application colour management is still quite primative, and people working on it are hitting software patent problems, and an indepentant coder turning our GPL or similar licenced code isn't going to be in a position to pay or even use patented software ideas.
If all you want to do is get your screen right, there may be hardware colour calibrator devices around for use in the TV production industry that use their own embeded software to tell you the colour levels of the screen.
xgamma comes free with XFree86. It can be used to query and alter gamma settings. Still, colour profiling is almost non existant on Linux... no support for ICC profiles in GIMP which is why I still dual boot. SGI IRIX has some really cool gamma and colour correction tools which come with its X/4DWM installation.