Not really... They don't normally do anything, except in the position that the sun is directly infront of the lens, will cause some flaring (very minimal). But most of the time, we never take pictures with sun directly infront of the lens.
Sometimes you will see a dark shadow in your photo at the spot when the dust particle is but can always clone it away. Dust is a small issue and even new lenses will have that so not to worry too much bro.
Every time the zoom ring is rotated, the lens will protrude in and out, which will suck in air together with the dust, so it is normal to find dust inside the lens. If the inside of your lens is filled with a lot of dust, most likely the motor is jam with dust too, and its time to send the lens in for servicing or replacement.
On my 2 weeks old Sigma 70-300mm, I discover that there is this white color speck of dust that is embedded in the layer of glass just slightly beneath the front element. Initially I thought its on the front element but upon close look then realised its underneath it... very sian...