Yes you can put a close up filter onto a zoom lens. generally close up filters are used on the more telephoto end than the wider angles.
Your working distance will be reduced in accordance to the dioptre of your close up filter attached. if you want have good working distance while achieving magnification you have to get a teleconverter.
Hi Anson, as mentioned, the close up filter will only serve to decrease your working distance. In general, autofocusing gets abit unreliable and hunts when shooting at the macro / micro level, and manual focusing is preferred.
Try this : close-up filter attached, zoom to max., focus at infinity. Now look at an object and move towards it until it is in focus.
This is the furthest you can be to the subject (since your lens is already focused at infinity). You may find it too close to the subject.
I toyed with the idea of using my 55-250mm for a butterfly lens but it just is not going to work with a 250D close up filter. I should have realized that my maximum working distance is 250mm. Even 500mm is too close for butterflies. I only need to get a little closer than the lens is capable of right now (the lens goes to 0.31x magnification by itself) - maybe extension tubes will work better.