btw, if you using your camera meter to do metering at the snow or beach scene (depends who much snow or sand/water subjects in your frame), you need to open up one ~ two stops (manual mode), or dial compensate dial (P, A or S mode), else you will have underexposed image, cos the meter does not know you have lot of white in your frame.
hi catchlights, i once notice that f/16 with 1/iso in a sunny day, match my camera meter.. but why f/22 in a beach scene? i am just trying to figure out.. it seems something is lost in rules explanation..
mm..after some digestion, i think meter works like sunny f/16 rules when condition is normal. But meter doesn't work according to sunny f/16 rules when certain extreme condition.
you can use a handheld meter, or using camera meter to meter a gray card at beach scene to confirm this.
Sunny F/16 rule follows a handheld incident light meter. Thus, it does not care what the subject is; i.e. bright or dark. It take the reading where lights falls on the subject. This is the light level we need to know to expose our medium, film or sensor, to give the image in proper expsoure.
But camera measures reflected light like the reflected light meter. When it bounce off a light or white subject, it give off more light. Our meter is dumb, thinking everything is mid tone, will give you a reading that is under.
When it bounce off a dark or black subject, it give off less light. Our meter is still dumb, thinking everything is mid tone, will give you a reading that is over.
Thus, the camera meter is only good if the subject is mid-tone like green, blue and red.
abit ot, not really related to sunny 16 rule.
metering with your palm, taken off
What if you can't walk up to your subject to take a meter reading? For instance, suppose that you're trying to photograph a deer in sunlight at the edge of a wood. If the background is dark, a meter reading of the overall scene will give you an incorrect exposure for the deer. Obviously, if you try to take a close-up reading of the deer, you're going to lose your subject before you ever get the picture. One answer is to make a substitute reading off the palm of your hand, providing that your hand is illuminated by the same light as your subject, then use a lens opening 1 stop larger than the meter indicates. For example, if the reading off your hand is f/16, open up one stop to f/11 to get the correct exposure. The exposure increase is necessary because the meter overreacts to the brightness of your palm which is about twice as bright as an average subject. When you take the reading, be sure that the lighting on your palm is the same as on the subject. Don't shade your palm.
photography makes one sees things from all angles.