To answer the question of this thread... I went home to experiment a bit on my PC. Colour calibration lets you create profiles. Some programs allow you to create only 1 profile with the default settings (like gamma, temperature, etc). Some programs allow you to create multiple profile.
Then the profile(s) will affect how your pictures look. If you load the profile into the Windows default colour profile, it will affect the Windows viewer.
To apply it to Photoshop, you will have to load it in with Photoshop's 'Colour Management' function. Alternatively, you can load it in as a Proof Colour, so that you can toggle between the 2.
I'd imagine that whatever programs you load the profile into... the look will be as per the calibrated profile.