Steve Caplin


The introduction of 3D printing direct from Photoshop opened new gateways for many folks, but 3D printing isn't limited to making models. An interesting twist is the automation of Lithopanesósometimes referred to as Lithophanes, from the Greek lithos (stone) and phanein (to cause to appear). However you spell them, lithopanes are three-dimensional versions of photographs that only make sense when held up to a light.
Invented in the 1820s, they were originally carved in warm wax on a glass plate, which was then duplicated in porcelain. Lithopanes were tricky to make, and consequently both expensive and highly valued. They were also hard to design, since the balance of light and shade in the finished product is produced entirely by the thickness of the material from which itís made.
Now itís easy to make your own, using a custom Photoshop Action. Once youíve downloaded the Action, locate it on your hard disk and drag it onto your Photoshop application icon to install it. Thereís no need to restart Photoshop after installing a new Action. Then, you can create your first lithopane by following these steps.
1. Choose a source image
To make a good lithopane, your source image needs to be bold, clear and, above all, high in contrast. Images photographed in black and white will generally return better results, as will large images of faces; subtle landscapes simply wonít make sense. If your image isnít black and white to start with, convert it to grayscale first. But donít just use the Image > Mode dialog box to do this, as this is likely to result in a washed-out portrait; instead, use the Black and White conversion (Image > Adjustments > Black & White) to get a highly-contrasted result. A recognizable face helps the process, someone like Mr. Einstein here:

2. Run the Action
Open your Actions panel (Window menu) and youíll find the new lithopane action listed at the bottom, in a folder named Make Lithopane. Select the Action and click the Play button at the bottom of the panel, and Photoshop will automatically run through the 33-step routine required to turn the flat image into a lumpy 3D object. Hereís the initial result, lit from the side so you can see the resulting contours:

3. Fix the original
The problem with the lithopane produced above is that itís rather too literal: every single highlight and shadow has resulted in its own spike. This will produce a model thatís not only difficult to print, but will tend to look jagged and hard to interpret. A better approach is to begin by blurring the original photograph, which softens the image considerably:

4. The corrected lithopane
Once the image has been softened, you can run the Action once again. This time, the contours are greatly smoothed out, which yields much more subtle gradations. This will result not only in a cleaner print, but in a more effective final result:

5. The view from above
When the lithopane is viewed head on, you can just about make out Einsteinís features. It looks rather odd, because of the way the procedure works: dark areas are made of thick plastic, light areas are thinner, so that they let more light through. In this sense, the image is inverted when seen from the top - and, indeed, one of the first steps of the Action is to invert the image:

6. The printed result
The lithopane can be printed directly from Photoshop if you have a connected, compatible 3D printer. Otherwise, you can save it as an STL file that can then be printed on any 3D printer. If you donít have access to a 3D printer, you can upload the model to Shapeways directly from Photoshop, and use their bureau service.
When seen flat, the resulting print looks fairly incomprehensible. You may just about be able to make out the shape of a head, but you canít see any features with any degree of recognition:

7. The backlit view
The real magic happens when you light the lithopane from behindóeven holding it up to a window will do the trick. Now, more light shines through the thinner areas than the thicker, resulting in a much more impressive image. This time, the hidden features clearly resolve themselves into a likeness:

Once the preserve of dedicated craftsmen, lithopanes are now within reach of anyone with a copy of Photoshop and a 3D printer.
Steve†Caplin†is the editor of the 3D printing blog††and the author of†How to Cheat in Photoshop CC.

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