I could give a brief explanation of everything, but to give you everythign would take maybe 10 full posts. Not good for your eyesight, not good for my fingers, and it still may not be complete. WHy a good fundamental book is preferable is because it is designed to precisely provide this amount of information, it is catered to newcomers, whereas my view may be jaded/influenced by my preferences and views on photography.
A good example is the DSLR Handbook by Michael Freeman. Good luck!